Antony was defeated in 43 b.c.e., but the Senate refused Octavian the triumph he felt Augustus, however, was in fact the senior partner. New York: Norton, 1971. [233] In 28 BC, he melted down 80 silver statues erected in his likeness and in honor of him, an attempt of his to appear frugal and modest. [93], Lepidus surrendered to Octavian and was permitted to retain the office of Pontifex Maximus (head of the college of priests), but was ejected from the Triumvirate, his public career at an end, and effectively was exiled to a villa at Cape Circei in Italy. [81] There were as many as eighteen Roman towns affected by the new settlements, with entire populations driven out or at least given partial evictions. Antony refused. Octavian took the West; Antony, the East; and Lepidus, Africa. In 17 B.C. 2, Religion und Literatur. This came about because it was overseen by Agrippa when he served as aedile, and was even funded by him afterwards when he was a private citizen paying at his own expense. Agrippa cut off Antony and Cleopatra's main force from their supply routes at sea, while Octavian landed on the mainland opposite the island of Corcyra (modern Corfu) and marched south. Binder, Gerhard. [252] The relief sculptures decorating the Ara Pacis visually augmented the written record of Augustus's triumphs in the Res Gestae. [184] The capture of the Alpine region also served the next offensive in 12 BC, when Tiberius began the offensive against the Pannonian tribes of Illyricum, and his brother Nero Claudius Drusus moved against the Germanic tribes of the eastern Rhineland. The date is provided by inscribed calendars; see also Augustus. This caused them to insist upon Augustus's participation in imperial affairs from time to time. Both Tacitus and Cassius Dio wrote that Livia was rumored to have brought about Augustus's death by poisoning fresh figs. Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society. His paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. Augustus was determined to be succeeded by someone of his own blood, but he had no sons, only a daughter, Julia, the child of his first wife. [155] Although Primus was found guilty, some jurors voted to acquit, meaning that not everybody believed Augustus's testimony, an insult to the 'August One'. In 44BCE, a group of enraged senators stabbed the dictator to death. [89] One of Pompeius's naval commanders betrayed him and handed over Corsica and Sardinia to Octavian. Raaflaub, Kurt A. and Toher, Mark (eds.). Mark Antony later used the examples of these battles as a means to belittle Octavian, as both battles were decisively won with the use of Antony's forces. His official images were very tightly controlled and idealized, drawing from a tradition of Hellenistic royal portraiture rather than the tradition of realism in Roman portraiture. [126][127], While Octavian acted as consul in Rome, he dispatched senators to the provinces under his command as his representatives to manage provincial affairs and ensure that his orders were carried out. Augustus ruled from c.31/27 BCE BC to 14 CE; for 45/41 years. Munich, 1998. He reigned for 45 years and was ruling at the time of Jesus Christ's birth. [181], Again, no military effort was needed in 25 BC when Galatia (modern Turkey) was converted to a Roman province shortly after Amyntas of Galatia was killed by an avenging widow of a slain prince from Homonada.

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