making the country the world's ninth-largest cotton producer. [59] The Turkmenistan Natural Gas Company (Türkmengaz), under the auspices of the Ministry of Oil and Gas, controls gas extraction in the country. [36] Former President Saparmurat Niyazov stated that the neutrality would prevent Turkmenistan from participating in multi-national defense organizations, but allows military assistance. [24] On 26 December 1991, the Soviet Union ceased to exist. The percentage of ethnic Russians in Turkmenistan dropped from 18.6% in 1939 to 9.5% in 1989. [24] By the 16th century, most of those tribes were under the nominal control of two sedentary Uzbek khanates, Khiva and Bukhoro. Although the Uzbek language has several dialects, there is a commonly understood dialect popularly used in mass media and printed material. President Niyazov spent much of the country's revenue on extensively renovating cities, Ashgabat in particular. Maintenance of international security", "Turkmenistan: Russian Students Targeted", "Alternative report on the Human Rights situation in Turkmenistan for the Universal Periodic Review", "Turkmenistan: International Religious Freedom Report 2004", "Turkmenistan 2015/2016: Freedom of religion", "One Year of Unjust Imprisonment in Turkmenistan", "Forum 18: TURKMENISTAN: Torture and jail for one 4 year and 14 short-term prisoners of conscience – 21 May 2015", "LGBT relationships are illegal in 74 countries, research finds", "Satellite dishes banned in Turkmenistan", "Strategic Infrastructure Planning for Sustainable Development in Turkmenistan", "Turkmenistan leader wants to end free power, gas, and water", "Turkmen gas field to be world's second-largest", "Turkmenistan. [24] Throughout the post-Soviet era, Turkmenistan has taken a neutral position on almost all international issues. [80] There is one Russian orthodox monastery, in Ashgabat. There are over 250,000 ethnic Russians in Turkmenistan with the majority inhabiting the northern part of the country. Some of the common Uzbek dialects spoken in Turkmenistan include Tashkent, Afghan, and Ferghana. In 2011, it was announced that the port of Turkmenbashi will be completely renovated. Religious classes are held in both schools and mosques, with instruction in Arabic language, the Qur'an and the hadith, and history of Islam. The politics of Turkmenistan take place in the framework of a presidential republic, with the President both head of state and head of government. Diversifying export routes", China’s Belt and Road Initiative through the Lens of Central Asia, "The ten largest cotton producing countries in 2009", "Turkmenistan to Privilege US Farm Machinery Manufacturers", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Ethnic composition of Turkmenistan in 2001", "MAPPING THE GLOBAL MUSLIM POPULATION : A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population", "Asia-Pacific | Turkmen drivers face unusual test", "Столетие.ru: "Туркменбаши хотел рухнамезировать Православие" / Статьи / Патриархия.ru", "Ancient Merv State Historical and Cultural Park", "Turkmenistan adopts 12-year secondary education", "Состоялись мероприятия по случаю окончания учебного года", "Туркменистан: Ниязов решил добить уволенного министра траспорта", "Порт Туркменбаши будет полностью реконструирован", "Определены приоритетные направления развития транспорта и транзита в регионе". [24] The sixteenth and eighteenth centuries saw a series of splits and confederations among the nomadic Turkmen tribes, who remained staunchly independent and inspired fear in their neighbors. [49], Despite the launch of Turkmenistan's first communication satellite—TurkmenSat 1—in April 2015, the Turkmen government banned all satellite dishes in Turkmenistan the same month. The Turkmen shore along the Caspian Sea is 1,748 kilometres (1,086 mi) long. [22], A common name for the Turkmen SSR was Turkmenia (Russian: Туркмения), used in some reports of the country's independence. Between 1989 and 2001 the number of Turkmen in Turkmenistan doubled (from 2.5 to 4.9 million), while the number of Russians dropped by two-thirds (from 334,000 to slightly over 100,000). Russian is also spoken widely in other major cities and towns across the country. [34] In practice, all parties in parliament operate jointly under the direction of the DPT. Turkmenistan is one of the most sparsely populated nations in Asia. The second party, the Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs was established in August 2012. [24] However, in 1990, the Supreme Soviet of Turkmenistan declared sovereignty as a nationalist response to perceived exploitation by Moscow. It is spoken by over 3 million people in Turkmenistan or 72% of the population. Le turkmène (autonyme : Türkmençe, /tʏɾkmøntʃø/) est une langue appartenant au groupe des langues turques parlée par plus de six millions de personnes en Asie centrale, principalement au Turkménistan, où il est la langue nationale, et dans les pays voisins (Iran, Afghanistan …). Turkmenbashi and his Turkmenistan. Towns With The Lowest Violent Crime Rates In The US. [24] China was among a very few nations to whom Turkmenistan made significant overtures. [4], The CIA World Factbook gives the ethnic composition of Turkmenistan as 85% Turkmen, 5% Uzbek, 4% Russian and 6% other (2003 estimates[update]). Turkmenistan had a chance to qualify to the Round of 16 for the first time. While teke or Chagatai on the written Turkmen which is also influenced by Persian and Arabic elements. However, in 1881, the last significant resistance in Turkmen territory was crushed at the Battle of Geok Tepe, and shortly thereafter Turkmenistan was annexed, together with adjoining Uzbek territory, into the Russian Empire. [42] It is considered to be one of the "10 Most Censored Countries". The latter resulted in the abolition of the Council and a significant increase in the size of Parliament in December 2008 and also permits the formation of multiple political parties. [citation needed] In 2010 Ashgabat started a policy of diversifying export routes for its raw materials. Since the December 2006 death of Niyazov, Turkmenistan's leadership has made tentative moves to open up the country. The written Turkmen language was further modified in 1996 with the adoption of the Latin alphabet in the version that was already utilized for Turkic. It is the medium of instruction in most elementary and secondary schools. Russian is the second most popular language spoken in Turkmenistan, especially in cities and towns. It was adopted as Turkmenistan’s official language in 1991 with the new constitution at the time of independence. [47][48] Homosexual acts are illegal in Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan currently broadcasts 7 national TV channels through satellite. Under Niyazov, Turkmenistan had a one-party system; however, in September 2008, the People's Council unanimously passed a resolution adopting a new Constitution. [24] Niyazov eschewed membership in regional organizations such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and in the late 1990s he maintained relations with the Taliban and its chief opponent in Afghanistan, the Northern Alliance. [24] The Ashgabat earthquake of 1948 killed over 110,000 people,[32] amounting to two-thirds of the city's population. According to Paul R. Spickard, "Prior to the Russian conquest, the Turkmen were known and feared for their involvement in the Central Asian slave trade."[29][30]. [15][16] Notable issues were its treatment of minorities, press freedoms, and religious freedoms. In 2012, around 7,000 tractors, 5,000 cotton cultivators, 2,200 sowing machines and other machinery, mainly procured from Belarus and the United States, are being used. Gas production is the most dynamic and promising sector of the national economy. Economic prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty and the burden of foreign debt. Most of the government documents are published in the Turkmen language. According to the decree of the Peoples' Council of 14 August 2003,[57] electricity, natural gas, water and salt will be subsidized for citizens up to 2030. Articles published by the state-controlled newspapers are heavily censored and written to glorify the state and its leader. [24] In 2002 an alleged assassination attempt against Niyazov led to a new wave of security restrictions, dismissals of government officials, and restrictions placed on the media. [14], The sovereign state of Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (also known as Turkmenbashi) until his death in 2006. There are no commercial or private TV stations. Also, oil is exported by tankers through the Caspian Sea to Europe via canals. Locomotive fleet consists of a series of soviet-made locomotives 2TE10L, 2TE10U, 2M62U also have several locomotives made in China.

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