The 1840 version of I Promessi Sposi used a standardized version of the Tuscan dialect, a conscious effort by the author to provide a language and force people to learn it. The architects of Italian unification were Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel, and Giuseppe Garibaldi, a general and national hero. Vittorio Valletta, Fiat's general manager, helped by trade barriers that blocked French and German cars, focused on technological innovations as well as an aggressive export strategy. In propaganda, Fascists used the ancient Roman motto "Mare Nostrum" (Latin for "Our Sea") to describe the Mediterranean. [5] The presence of the Homo neanderthalensis has been demonstrated in archaeological findings near Rome and Verona dating to c. 50,000 years ago (late Pleistocene). The political and social events in the restoration period of Italy (1815–1835) led to popular uprisings throughout the peninsula and greatly shaped what would become the Italian Wars of Independence. The Italian Renaissance bears a carving of the Roman numerals MCCCC (1400), the universally accepted date of the start of the Italian Renaissance, along with a shield decorated with a palette and brushes. Italy takes part in the Operation Desert Storm, during the, A referendum abolished the multiple preferences for the election of, It's transmitted first-run animated series. 341-290 BC The Romans fight three wars against the tribes of Samnium to the south-east of Rome. Several members of the government, having been in office just three days, resigned in protest; among them were. ", Rome: The Conquest of the Hellenistic Empires, "Paul Oskar Kristeller HUMANISM (The Cambridge History of Renaissance Philosophy)", "The plague in the Kingdom of Naples (1656–58): diffusion and mortality", "Carbonaro – definition of Carbonaro by The Free Dictionary", "Italy Prime Minister Mattro Renzi on Senate Reform", "Italy's Conte forms coalition of bitter rivals, booting far-right from power", "New Italian government formed, allying M5S and the center-left | DW | 4 September 2019", "Italy extends emergency measures nationwide", "From confidence to quarantine: how coronavirus swept Italy", "Sondaggio Demos: gradimento per Conte alle stelle", "Blog | Coronavirus, la sospensione delle libertà costituzionali è realtà. The creation of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of concerted efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula. In 476, the last Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by Odoacer; for a few years Italy stayed united under the rule of Odoacer, but soon after it was divided between several barbarian kingdoms, and did not reunite under a single ruler until thirteen centuries later. AD 14 Augustus dies and Tiberius becomes Emperor. In 2001, the centre-right formed the government and Silvio Berlusconi was able to regain power and keep it for a complete five-year mandate, becoming the longest government in post-war Italy. c.2500-1500 BC A series of migrations into the Italian peninsula brings new cultures, languages and forms of metalworking, and creates the basis for the pre-Roman civilizations. The Italian Renaissance began in Tuscany, centered in the city of Florence. However, old republics such as Venice and Genoa were not recreated, Venice went to Austria, and Genoa went to the Kingdom of Sardinia. This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with the Carthaginians, whose interests also collided with the Greeks. The Orlando government had started the process of reconciliation during the World War, and the pope furthered it by cutting ties with the Christian Democrats in 1922. The government implemented numerous reforms, including changes to the electoral system, a relaxation of labour and employment laws with the intention of boosting economic growth, a thorough reformation of the public administration and the introduction of same-sex civil unions. Kings and popes, neither of them part of Roman imperial tradition, will henceforth wield power in the Italian peninsula. On 9 June 1944 he was replaced as Prime Minister by the 70-year-old anti-fascist leader Ivanoe Bonomi. 1946- The Italian economy grows strongly in the post-war decades, but rising political tensions from the 1970s lead to the assassination of an ex-prime minister (Aldo Moro) and a series of political scandals revolving around corruption. These three periods are rightly seen as the definitive moments of Italian history, but the time in between them was a fractious and fascinating one, and this very brief overview of some of its key moments is intended to set them in a basic context: c.48,000 BC Neanderthal Man arrives in the Italian peninsula. Strong urban growth led to uncontrolled urban sprawl. The Roman Republic was formed out of the papal holdings while the pope himself was sent to France. The boom had also a huge impact on Italian society and culture. In drawing out war plans, Mussolini and the Fascist regime decided that Italy would aim to annex large portions of Africa and the Middle East to be included in its colonial empire. Italian East Africa. Ever since it had been badly defeated in Ethiopia in 1896, there was a strong demand for seizing that country. After the resignation of Mariano Rumor (July 6). [127] British historian John Bierman said that the Italian tank regiment "fought with great audacity, just as the Ariete artillery regiment did". From there, in 568, they enter northern Italy. [83] However, many of the South's political problems and its reputation of being "passive" or lazy (politically speaking) was due to the new government (that was born out of Italy's want for development) that alienated the South and prevented the people of the South from any say in important matters. Having gained 8.7% of the vote, 56 deputies and 26 senators. However, Spain attempted again to retake territories in Italy and to claim the French throne in the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720), but was again defeated. The more conservative constitutional monarchic figures included the Count of Cavour and Victor Emmanuel II, who would later become the first king of a united Italy. The Black Death in 1348 inflicted a terrible blow to Italy, killing perhaps one third of the population. (“The Senate and People of Rome”) and a Roman warrior. [127], German General Erwin Rommel praised the Italians on several occasions, describing their as "extraordinary, courageous, disciplined, but badly commanded and equipped. All male members of the House of Savoy were barred from entering Italy, a ban which was only repealed in 2002. [6] In November 2011 tests conducted at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit in England on what were previously thought to be Neanderthal baby teeth, which had been unearthed in 1964 dating from between 43,000 and 45,000 years ago. So many pivotal moments in our collective past have taken place in Italy that it can be considered Europe’s historical keystone. With no immediate response, a group of 30,000 Fascists began a long trek across Italy to Rome (the March on Rome), claiming that Fascists were intending to restore law and order. The long Siege of Florence (1529–1530) brought the destruction of its suburbs, the ruin of its export business and the confiscation of its citizens' wealth. Letta formed a grand coalition government, supported also by The People of Freedom of Silvio Berlusconi and Civic Choice of Mario Monti. In summary, historian Stanley G. Payne says that Fascism in Italy was: In 1929, Mussolini and the Catholic Church came to an agreement that ended a standoff that reached back to 1860 and had alienated the Church from the Italian government. Mark Antony's affair with Cleopatra was seen as an act of treason, since she was queen of a foreign power and Antony was adopting an extravagant and Hellenistic lifestyle that was considered inappropriate for a Roman statesman.[32]. Geographical and historical treatment of Italy, including maps and a survey of its people, economy, and government. After Mazzini's release in 1831, he went to Marseille, where he organized a new political society called La Giovine Italia (Young Italy). The Romans gradually subdued the other peoples on the Italian peninsula, including the Etruscans. They begin with The Roman Period, represented by the letters S.P.Q.R. 20 skiers (of which 3 Italians) die in the. Venice, 1158-11-11 Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa declares himself ruler of North Italy, 1208-02-24 St Francis of Assisi, 26, received his vocation in Portiuncula Italy, 1282-03-30 The people of Sicily rebel against the Angevin king Charles I, in what becomes known as the Sicilian Vespers, 1497-05-10 Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci leaves for his first voyage to the New World (disputed), 1497-08-06 Italian explorer John Cabot returns to Bristol from North America (Newfoundland) - first European to do so since the Vikings, 1509-04-27 Pope Julius II excommunicates Italian state of Venice, 1512-04-11 Battle of Ravenna: French forces under Gaston de Foix defeat the Holy League in a major battle of the Italian Wars, 1526-01-14 Charles V and Francis I sign the Treaty of Madrid, forcing Francis to give up claims to Burgundy, Italy and Flanders, 1633-02-13 Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before Inquisition for professing belief that earth revolves around the Sun, 1738-04-15 Premiere in London of "Serse", an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. Socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti was assassinated after calling for a nullification of the vote because of the irregularities. 1882, 1225-01-28 Saint Thomas Aquinas, Italian theologian and saint, born in Roccasecca, Italy (d. 1274), 1254-09-15 Marco Polo, Italian explorer (Il Milione), born in Venice, Venetian Republic (d. 1324), 1443-12-05 Julius II, Italian Pope (1503-13) and patron of Michelangelo, Bramante and Raphael, born in Albisola, Republic of Genoa (d. 1513), 1451-10-30 Christopher Columbus, Italian explorer and navigator who discovered the "New World" for Spain and initiated European colonization, born in the Republic of Genoa on or just before this date (d. 1506), 1452-04-15 Leonardo da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, born in Vinci, Florence, Italy (d. 1519), 1452-07-27 Ludovico Sforza [il Moro], Italian duke of Milan (1494-1508) who commissioned The Last Supper, born in Vigevano (Modern day Lombardy), Italy (d. 1508), 1454-03-09 Amerigo Vespucci, Italian explorer (America), born in Florence (d. 1512), 1469-05-03 Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian politician and writer (Prince), born in Florence, Italy (d. 1527), 1470-06-30 Charles VIII, King of France (1483-98) who invaded Italy, born in Château d'Amboise, France (d. 1498), 1475-03-06 Michelangelo, Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance (David, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel), born in Caprese, Tuscany (d. 1564), 1475-12-11 Leo X [Giovanni de' Medici], Italian Pope (1513-21), born in Florence, Italy (d. 1521), 1483-04-06 Raphael Sanzio, Italian painter and master builder (Madonna Sistina, School of Athens), born in Urbino (d. 1520) Julian calendar date, 1501-09-24 Girolamo Cardano, Italian mathematician and astrologer (Ars Magna-1545), born in Pavia, Italy (d. 1576), 1502-01-07 Gregory XIII [Ugo Boncompagni], Italian pope (1572-85) who introduced the Gregorian (New Style) calendar in 1582, born in Bologna, Papal States (d. 1585), 1842-03-26 Italian general Giuseppe Garibaldi (34) weds Ana Maria de Jesus Ribeiro (20) in Montevideo, 1869-10-18 Sardinia king Victor Emmanuel II (49) weds his mistress Rosa Vercellana (36) in Italy, 1928-07-19 Physicist Enrico Fermi (26) weds writer Laura Capon in Rome, Italy, 1936-02-02 Physicist Emilio G. Segrè (31) weds jewish woman Elfriede Spiro at the Great Synagogue of Rome in Italy, 1943-10-30 Italian director Federico Fellini marries actress Giulietta Masina, 1956-05-22 Actress Anita Ekberg (24) weds actor and singer Anthony Steel (36) in Florence, Italy, 1957-09-17 Italian actress Sophia Loren (22) weds Carlo Ponti, 1986-09-26 Fashion designer Calvin Klein (43) weds assistant Kelly Rector in a civil ceremony in Italy, 1997-06-21 "Bridget Jones' Diary" actor Colin Firth (36) weds Italian film producer Livia Giuggioli (27) in Tuscany, Italy, 2003-07-19 "Sabrina, The Teenage Witch" actress Melissa Joan Hart (27) weds "Course of Nature" lead singer-guitarist Mark Wilkersonin (26) in Florence, Italy, 2003-12-13 Italian operatic tenor Luciano Pavarotti (68) weds Nicoletta Mantovani at Modena Italy's Teatro Comunale, 2005-10-09 Italian pop singer Alexia (38) weds Giorgio Armani's nephew Andrea Camerana at Church of San Martino in Piacenza, Italy, 2006-11-18 American film actor and producer Tom Cruise (44) weds actress Katie Holmes (27) at Odescalchi Castle, Bracciano, Italy, 2009-05-02 Actress Maggie Gyllenhaal (32) weds film and stage actor Peter Sarsgaard (38) in a small chapel in Brindisi, Italy, 2009-08-15 Actor Joseph Fiennes (39) weds model María Dolores Diéguez in Tuscany, Italy, 2010-08-31 Actress Leelee Sobieski (27) weds fashion designer Adam Kimmel in Italy, 2012-10-19 Grammy Award winning singer Justin Timberlake (31) weds "Total Recall" actress Jessica Biel (30) at the Borgo Egnazia resort in Fasano, Italy, 2013-09-14 Singer-songwriter John Legend (34) weds model Chrissy Teigen (27) at Villa Pizzo in Lake Como, Italy, 2014-05-24 Rapper and record producer Kanye West (36) weds model Kim Kardashian (33) at Fort di Belvedere in Florence, Italy, 2014-09-27 Actor George Clooney (53) weds lawyer Amal Alamuddin (36) at the seven-star Aman Canal Grande hotel in Venice, Italy, 1226-10-03 Saint Francis of Assisi, Italian founder of the Franciscan Order, dies at 44 or 45, 1274-03-07 Thomas Aquinas, Italian theologian, Philosopher and Doctor of the Church (Summa Theologica), dies at 48 or 49.

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