7              Encyclopaedia Britanninca, Germanic peoples, also called Teutonic Peoples at , http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/231063/Germanic-peoples. As the Huns advanced, the Visigoths were forced to flee further into the Eastern Roman Empire. The series of conflicts, which began in the 5th century under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, was one of many factors which led to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire. Geiseric ferried across the Strait of Gibraltar in 429 and marched across North Africa to Tunis, killed St Augustine in a siege, and in 439 established a capital at Carthage. A light wooden or wicker shield, sometimes fitted with an iron rim and sometimes strengthened with leather, was the only defensive protection. The Vandals were a Germanic tribe from the overpopulated and frequently flooded coastal Baltic Sea who crossed over from Sweden to Jutland, Denmark, and migrated to the Oder River valley in c550 BC. This is a chronology of warfare between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD. The Baltic coastal areas suffered devastating floods as the geological process slowly took place. The Goths overran the western Roman Empire and permanently set Europe on a new cultural direction. Both the Thus ended the Lombard Kingdom in Latin Italy, led by the Roman Pope Adrian I. In the south the Jutes established themselves in Kent and the Isle of Wight. Finally, in the south the Saxons, who remained a continental power, established the Kingdoms of the: South Saxons (now Sussex), East Saxons (now Essex), and West Saxons (now Wessex). Although Theodoric was an Arian Christian, he tolerated the Catholic, Jewish, and other faiths. 14           See Kelley L. Ross, PhD, SUCCESSORS OF ROME: GERMANIA, 395-774 at, http://www.friesian.com/germania.htm. [6], In c1570-1200 BC , the Germanic tribes probably occupied southern Sweden, the Danish peninsula, and northern Germany between the Ems and Oder Rivers, and the Harz Mountains. In 410, the emperor Honorius sent the Britons an answer to their pleas for help, which confirmed that Britain was on its own. Neither Romans nor average Vandals had a voice in political affairs. The Franks gave their name both to France and as a label for all Western Europeans in languages like Arabic. Together with the migrations of the Slavs, these events were the formative elements of … 3              Adapted from The Germanic Invasions of Western Europe, http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firsteuro/invas.html; Germanic peoples at, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_peoples; Germanic Tribes at, http://www.germantribes.org/; German Tribes at, http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858397.html; Richard Hooker, European Middle Ages, The Germans at, http://wsu.edu/~dee/MA/GERMANS.HTM; F Roy Willis, and Robert A Guisepi, The Germanic Tribes, and Huns at, http://history-world.org/germanic_tribes.htm;  German Tribes, THE TRIBES: OVERVIEW at, http://www.germantribes.org/tribes/tribes_intro.htm. He showed great concern for Roman culture and restored Roman monuments, including the Coliseum in Rome. Euric introduced many aspects of Roman civilization and drew up a code of law combining Roman and German elements. The Huns and Alans together plundered Ostrogothic settlements, and conquered the eastern Ostrogoths in 376. The Huns were followed into Europe by the Avars in 562, the Bulgars in the 670s, and the Magyars in c889. Eventually, under their new king Audoin, the Lombards turned on the Huns whom they slaughtered and pillaged. 19           Heritage-History, Visigoth Wars, 251 to 410 A.D., Visigoths — versus — Rome, Germanic tribes at, http://www.heritage-history.com/www/heritage.php?Dir=wars&FileName=wars_visigoths.php.

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