Instead of the usual infinitive ending -en, German verbs are indicated by a hyphen after their stems. the Deutsche Höhere Privatschule Windhoek), literature (German-Namibian authors include Giselher W. Hoffmann), radio (the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation produces radio programs in German), and music (e.g. The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Dutch and Afrikaans), Low German or Low Saxon dialects (spoken in northern Germany and southern Denmark), neither of which underwent the High German consonant shift. This sound shift involved a drastic change in the pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless stop consonants (b, d, g, and p, t, k, respectively). As has been noted, the former of these dialect types is Istvaeonic and the latter Ingvaeonic, whereas the High German dialects are all Irminonic; the differences between these languages and standard German are therefore considerable. 25) dialects. Standard German is based on a combination of Thuringian-Upper Saxon and Upper Franconian and Bavarian dialects, which are Central German and Upper German dialects, belonging to the Irminonic High German dialect group (nos. This table lists ISO 639-1 (alpha-2 code) and ISO 639-2 (alpha-3 code) codes and the English and French names of the languages. In Mac OS X there's also an "Input Menu" (under System Preferences > International) that allows you to select various foreign-language keyboards, including standard German and Swiss German. Although it is nearly extinct today, some older Namibians still have some knowledge of it. While these states were still under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, and far from any form of unification, the desire for a cohesive written language that would be understandable across the many German-speaking principalities and kingdoms was stronger than ever. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with an umlaut mark, namely ä, ö and ü, as well as the eszett or scharfes s (sharp s): ß. Of particular interest to scholars, however, has been the Hildebrandslied, a secular epic poem telling the tale of an estranged father and son unknowingly meeting each other in battle. It also contains close similarities in vocabulary to Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although they belong to the North Germanic group. To find out more about the cookies we use, see our Privacy Policy. For example, the English sentence "Should he go home?" The largest cities in the German Low Franconian area are Düsseldorf and Duisburg. German is also the second most widely taught foreign language in the EU after English at primary school level (but third after English and French at lower secondary level), the fourth most widely taught non-English language in the US (after Spanish, French and American Sign Language), the second most commonly used scientific language and the third most widely used language on websites after English and Russian. According to a 2012 survey, 47 million people within the EU (i.e., up to two-thirds of the 75–100 million worldwide) claimed to have sufficient German skills to have a conversation. The status of Plautdietsch as a German variety or separate language is subject to discussion. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany. In general, the surviving texts of OHG show a wide range of dialectal diversity with very little written uniformity. The word Fuß 'foot' has the letter ß because it contains a long vowel, even though that letter occurs at the end of a syllable.

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