During these two years thousands of scientists from over 60 nations will co-operate to carry out over 200 projects to learn about physical, biological, and social aspects of the Arctic and Antarctic (IPY). The first circumpolar report on walrus conservation recommends research into the effects of industrial activities on the Arctic animals. It’s the largest ‘haul out’ ever recorded. [9], During all seasons, the strongest average winds are found in the North-Atlantic seas, Baffin Bay, and Bering and Chukchi Seas, where cyclone activity is most common. The moving fish also change the ecosystems into which they move. Beginning in 1979 the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program (the International Arctic Buoy Program since 1991) has been collecting meteorological and ice-drift data across the Arctic Ocean with a network of 20 to 30 buoys. [2] As a result, expeditions from the second half of the nineteenth century began to provide a picture of the Arctic climate. Therefore, temperature tends to decrease with increasing latitude. Serreze, Mark C. and Roger Graham Barry, 2005: ocean surrounding the North Pole was ice-free, summer sea ice transitions through spring thaw, summer melt ponds, and autumn freeze-up, "Representation of Mean Arctic Precipitation from NCEP–NCAR and ERA Reanalyses", 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0182:ROMAPF>2.0.CO;2, Aerosols May Drive a Significant Portion of Arctic Warming, "Studies of the Arctic Suggest a Dire Situation", Video on Climate Research in the Bering Sea, The Future of Arctic Climate and Global Impacts, How Climate Change Is Growing Forests in the Arctic, Arctic Ice Caps May Be More Prone to Melt; A new core pulled from Siberia reveals a 2.8-million-year history of warming and cooling, Chief Directorate of the Northern Sea Route, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Effects of global warming on marine mammals, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Climate_of_the_Arctic&oldid=984347390, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Wikipedia articles that may have off-topic sections from July 2018, All articles that may have off-topic sections, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Arctic Basin includes the Arctic Ocean within the average minimum extent of sea ice, The entire island of Greenland, although its, The Arctic waters that are not sea ice in late summer, including. For the most part there is no true frost-free period; frost and some snow have been recorded in every month of the year. The Soviet Union was also interested in the Arctic and established a significant presence there by continuing the North-Pole drifting stations. However, this region is not part of the Arctic because its continental climate also allows it to have warm summers, with an average July temperature of 15 °C (59 °F). Accurate climatologies of precipitation amount are more difficult to compile for the Arctic than climatologies of other variables such as temperature and pressure. Arctic Ocean sediments reveal permafrost thawing during past climate warming Date: October 16, 2020 Source: Stockholm University Summary: Sea floor sediments of the Arctic … These frequent cyclones lead to larger annual precipitation totals than over most of the Arctic. The east coast of the central third of the island receives between 200 and 600 mm (7.9 and 23.6 in) of precipitation per year, with increasing amounts from north to south. © 2020 WWF - World Wide Fund For Nature © 1986 Panda Symbol WWF – World Wide Fund For Nature (formerly World Wildlife Fund)® “WWF” is a WWF Registered Trademark Strong winds blowing off the ice cap are common in all parts of the island. In summer, the presence of the nearby water keeps coastal areas from warming as much as they might otherwise. In general, the magnitude of the warming increased with latitude, and in Svalbard winter temperatures rose by 14 °F (8 °C). These have very small annual temperature variations; average winter temperatures are kept near or above the freezing point of sea water (about −2 °C (28 °F)) since the unfrozen ocean cannot have a temperature below that, and summer temperatures in the parts of these regions that are considered part of the Arctic average less than 10 °C (50 °F). As the Arctic loses snow and ice, bare rock and water absorb more and more of the sun’s energy, making it even warmer. Conditions are stable for extended periods of low wind velocities, clear skies—especially bordering Siberia—and temperatures ranging from −20 to −40 °F (−30 to −40 °C). Building a future in which people live in harmony with nature. The continued low temperatures, and the persisting white snow cover, mean that this additional energy reaching the Arctic from the sun is slow to have a significant impact because it is mostly reflected away without warming the surface. Of January observations reporting precipitation, 95% to 99% of them indicate it was frozen. The first major effort by Europeans to study the meteorology of the Arctic was the First International Polar Year (IPY) in 1882 to 1883. A result of these observations is a thorough record of sea-ice extent in the Arctic since 1979; the decreasing extent seen in this record (NASA, NSIDC), and its possible link to anthropogenic global warming, has helped increase interest in the Arctic in recent years. Since there is no sunlight, the thermal radiation emitted by the atmosphere is one of this region's main sources of energy in winter. The Arctic Basin is one of the driest parts of the Arctic. Frost-free and growing periods are relatively short throughout the Arctic. Sea ice is relatively thin, generally less than about 4 m (13 ft), with thicker ridges (NSIDC). Furthermore, most of the small amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface is reflected away by the bright snow cover. Low spring and summer cloud frequency and the high elevation, which reduces the amount of solar radiation absorbed or scattered by the atmosphere, combine to give this region the most incoming solar radiation at the surface out of anywhere in the Arctic. Variations in the amount of solar radiation reaching different parts of the Earth are a principal driver of global and regional climate. Beginning in the 1850s regular meteorological observations became more common in many countries, and the British navy implemented a system of detailed observation. The Arctic consists of ocean that is largely surrounded by land. Much of the ice sheet remains below freezing all year, and it has the coldest climate of any part of the Arctic. Summer temperatures are more uniform across the whole of the Arctic. By November, winter is in full swing in most of the Arctic, and the small amount of solar radiation still reaching the region does not play a significant role in its climate. In winter, the Canadian Archipelago experiences temperatures similar to those in the Arctic Basin, but in the summer months of June to August, the presence of so much land in this region allows it to warm more than the ice-covered Arctic Basin. Without urgent action to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the world will continue to feel the effects of a warming Arctic: rising sea levels, changes in climate and precipitation patterns, increasing severe weather events, and loss of fish stocks, birds and marine mammals. Warmer winter temperatures have also increased the layers of ice in snow, making food more difficult to dig up in winter. Annual precipitation totals in the Canadian Archipelago increase dramatically from north to south. Meteorological observations were collected from the ship during its crossing from September 1893 to August 1896. As a result, these regions receive more precipitation in winter than in summer. Expeditions from the 1760s to the middle of the 19th century were also led astray by attempts to sail north because of the belief by many at the time that the ocean surrounding the North Pole was ice-free. In winter, radiative cooling at the surface is associated with extreme cold, but, at heights a few thousand feet above the surface, temperatures as much as 20 to 30 °F (11 to 17 °C) warmer can often be found. By July and August, most of the land is bare and absorbs more than 80% of the sun's energy that reaches the surface. Winter temperatures average below freezing over all of the Arctic except for small regions in the southern Norwegian and Bering Seas, which remain ice free throughout the winter. This begins a feedback, as melting snow reflects less solar radiation (50% to 60%) than dry snow, allowing more energy to be absorbed and the melting to take place faster. This is due to the region's continental climate, far from the moderating influence of the ocean, and to the valleys in the region that can trap cold, dense air and create strong temperature inversions, where the temperature increases, rather than decreases, with height. Melting ice is opening up previously inaccessible routes. In winter, the heat transferred from the −2 °C (28 °F) water through cracks in the ice and areas of open water helps to moderate the climate some, keeping average winter temperatures around −30 to −35 °C (−22 to −31 °F). WWF is advocating for renewable energy, and piloting renewable solutions with some Arctic communities. The fish are sensitive to changes in water temperature. As the snow disappears on land, the underlying surfaces absorb even more energy, and begin to warm rapidly. In 2018, the first cargo ship transited the Arctic north of Russia. More precipitation falls in winter, when the storm track is most active, than in summer. The lowest extreme temperatures in the winter are between −65 and −50 °F (−54 and −46 °C). The number of days with measurable precipitation (more than 0.1 mm [0.004 in] in a day) is slightly greater in July than in January (USSR 1985). The climates of polar lands vary greatly depending on their latitude, proximity of the sea, elevation, and topography; even so, they all share certain “polar” characteristics. Differences in surface albedo due for example to presence or absence of snow and ice strongly affect the fraction of the solar radiation reaching the surface that is reflected rather than absorbed. Summer days can be surprisingly warm, even in tundra regions, and summer thunderstorms in the Arctic are common, sometimes setting forest fires. The winter ice cover allows temperatures to drop much lower in these regions than in the regions that are ice-free all year. In 1884 the wreckage of the Briya, a ship abandoned three years earlier off Russia's eastern Arctic coast, was found on the coast of Greenland. At its maximum extent, in March, sea ice covers about 15 million km² (5.8 million sq mi) of the Northern Hemisphere, nearly as much area as the largest country, Russia.[8]. This report also states that "most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely [greater than 90% chance] due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations." The end of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to a dramatic decrease in regular observations from the Arctic. Scientific expeditions to the Arctic also became more common during the Cold-War decades, sometimes benefiting logistically or financially from the military interest. The Chukchi, Laptev, and Kara Seas and Baffin Bay receive somewhat more precipitation than the Arctic Basin, with annual totals between 200 and 400 mm (7.9 and 15.7 in); annual cycles in the Chukchi and Laptev Seas and Baffin Bay are similar to those in the Arctic Basin, with more precipitation falling in summer than in winter, while the Kara Sea has a smaller annual cycle due to enhanced winter precipitation caused by cyclones from the North Atlantic storm track.[5][6]. By the early 19th century some expeditions were making a point of collecting more detailed meteorological, oceanographic, and geomagnetic observations, but they remained sporadic.

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